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The Windrush Generation: Teaching the Other Generations

2019 will be the first year that the nation celebrates Windrush day as an officially recognised anniversary, so we took this opportunity to talk with Caribbean elders and hear their experiences.

Rachael Minott, Horniman’s Curator of Anthropology (Social Practice), with the help of Shasti Lowton, created a series of events where multiple generations of Caribbeans could gather and share food, stories and advice. 

Here, the group discussed what they wish they could teach the generations.

Vanes Creavalle

I think maybe the power of accepting change.

Because it’s really hard to accept change, especially when you’ve seen a lot and experienced a lot of things, and I feel like you need to be more accepting of change in that there are different people. 

We have a really multicultural society but we seem very sheltered and isolated within our communities, which in some cases is good cos its nice we can develop our cultures and traditions, but in other senses, it's limiting what we can do.

Like saying, because I’m Caribbean I’m only going to have with Caribbean people, it stops us from making a much greater impact.

I think to have the diversity in that, telling your story to Caribbean people, but telling your story to others is important because there can be a mutual understanding. And I feel like until we have that understanding we are not really going to go anywhere.

Because you can always say, 'this is my story, this is my story'. And you can tell your family that story, but apart from that, where is your story going?

I don't think there is any further conversation.

  • Windrush: Howard, Vanes and Catherine laughing together, Howard, Vanes and Catherine laughing together
    Howard, Vanes and Catherine laughing together

So I think there needs to be more acceptance of change, as well as more conversations with not just your family, or the people in your race, or people you talk to normally - but more open conversation with everybody so we can come together and share what we have.

And then when we share we can create something much better in the future.

Catherine Ross

My granddaughter is eight going on eighty - she knows everything.

She’ll come up to me and say - cause she thinks I know nothing, I’m only her Grandma - she’ll say, 'I bet you don't know' or 'Did you know?' And I’m like, I’ve been here sixty-odd years, I think I will know a few things!

But you have to put on these things and be like, 'Really? And what happens next...' cause I’m pushing her with follow questions to see how much she does know, so then I can give my input.

She always feels like she has to teach me when I come visit, something she feels I won’t know. And I feel like that is really, really good.

But there are things that she does know that I’m sure I didn’t know until I was fifteen! You know what I mean, so I think the younger generation know a lot more than we ever did, and I certainly knew more than my dad.

  • Catherine Ross, Catherine Ross
    Catherine Ross

But only because they came from the Caribbean to here, and you know I grew up here, so I felt I knew everything and now my granddaughter is doing it to me, she knows more than I do.

I think it’s nice each generation can help the next.

Howard Richards

That's the goal though, you raise a child, the child learns you, then they go out and learn the world - and then they come back and teach you. Simple.

So the child becomes stronger. 

  • Windrush - Howard Richards, Howard Richards
    Howard Richards

The Windrush Generation: Memories of Family

2019 will be the first year that the nation celebrates Windrush day as an officially recognised anniversary, so we took this opportunity to talk with Caribbean elders and hear their experiences.

Rachael Minott, Horniman’s Curator of Anthropology (Social Practice), with the help of Shasti Lowton, created a series of events where multiple generations of Caribbeans could gather and share food, stories and advice. 

Here, the group shares some of their thoughts and memories connected to family.

  • Windrush: Howard, Vanes and Catherine laughing together, Howard, Vanes and Catherine laughing together
    Howard, Vanes and Catherine laughing together

Catherine Ross

Mum and Dad - Did you think when you settled your family of six in Nottingham from St Kitts all those years ago that one day you would have 210 descendants!

That through a series of marriages and romantic liaisons they would all claim and assert their familial link to you both with such fierce pride and love.

Many of these have Caribbean blood running through their veins and not just from St Kitts! In some of them, the blood of the English and the Irish have a presence and a vibrancy, but all of them have your indomitable spirit, that marvellous trait that brought you from sunny shores to a place that couldn’t be more different.

Where your courage and persistence helped you succeed in creating a home for your family, providing for your growing family needs and inspiring your family and others to reach for the stars and follow their dreams.

  • Catherine Ross, Catherine Ross
    Catherine Ross

Many a time I recalled a phrase you used when it was taking one of us a time to grasp things you were trying to teach us, “Yuh ears hard?”

That’s what I remember, Mum and Dad, the many Caribbean sayings you used in so many situations – from teaching us good manners to expressing your delight or annoyance over matters.

One thing all my siblings and I say when we get together for family reunions, is how much we are like you both in this regard. We hear ourselves chiding our children in the phrases we were regularly admonished with. We laugh and thank the Lord for you, the best parents ever.

Have we become more like you since your passing over a quarter of a century ago? We all say we hope so, and if we keep trying to be then the world will be a better place, how could it not be if we put our faith into practice and we try and help others less fortunate in whatever situation and community we find ourselves. 

We now realise, as you said, the best gift we will ever be given is family, they are a blessing and so we should treat them well and kindly because “You never miss the water till the well runs dry”.

If we had realised the importance of this saying of yours then we would have asked more questions of you: learned more life lessons from you and would have had even more of your wisdom to share with others - the world would have been an even more beautiful place.

We thank you for what you have shared with us and many others do too.

As people of the Windrush generation, you brought hope to these British shores, showed what rewards courage can bring and left a vibrant legacy, a beacon for all who inhabit the British Isles to be grateful for those who came from the Caribbean Isles.

I applaud you for your efforts, I recognise you for your achievements and I love you for showing us that it’s the people who make a difference to life. Thank you.

Vanes Creavalle

My Grandad. He was a photographer and the idea that he was capturing moments in history - I think it’s just really amazing to capture single moments. I think that's really beautiful.

As they say, pictures can tell a thousand words, so capturing moments in history, family moments and peoples smile even - I just think it’s so beautiful to take pictures.

In our house there is actually a picture of my granddad taking a picture and, as my dad always says, there are not many pictures of the people who take pictures.

I think that kind of capturing someone in their element doing something that they love, I think that's really powerful - that's always inspired me.

  • Windrush - Howard talking to Vanes, Howard talking to Vanes
    Howard talking to Vanes

Howard Richards

The best childhood memory I’ve got is my grandmother.

My mother and father came to England, leaving me in Jamaica. I was born in St Andrews in my father’s house where I was left with my Hanti.

My grandmother lived in Trewlany, which is on the north coast, St Andrews is in Kingston, in fact. My grandmother came from Trewlany and took us from my Hanti and brought us to Trewlany to live with her.

We walked with no shoes on the foot: beautiful. We walked through cane trees: beautiful.

I used to think about coming to England. I’m going to go to England one day and see my mother and father. But when I left Jamaica to come here I cry for all three, four weeks, because I missed my grandmother.

The Windrush Generation: Reflections on Food

2019 will be the first year that the nation celebrates Windrush day as an officially recognised anniversary so we took this opportunity to talk with Caribbean elders and hear their experiences.

Rachael Minott, Horniman’s Curator of Anthropology (Social Practice), with the help of Shasti Lowton, created a series of events where multiple generations of Caribbeans could gather and share food, stories and advice. 

Together, the group planned a meal and shared some reflections about food.

  • A composite from the Windrush project, The group shared memories of food and drink. Clockwise from top left: Normal and Dunstan, the group eating, Catherine and Lyn, Shasti and Morella.
    The group shared memories of food and drink. Clockwise from top left: Normal and Dunstan, the group eating, Catherine and Lyn, Shasti and Morella.

Morella Forde

Mum goes to church on Sundays but as teenagers we were left to make our own choices so sometimes we too went to church.

When we came back home we had to help her in the kitchen to prepare the Sunday meals of our stewed red beans, rice, ground provisions like yams, sweet potatoes, macaroni cheese, etc, not forgetting our green bananas with fried fish and stewed chicken.

  • Windrush - Morella Forde, Morella Forde
    Morella Forde

On Saturdays mum still cooks our national dish of broth, and we have conversations of Dominica and England as mum tells us stories when she first came to England, and the problems she had with the racism in finding a place to live and work.

She believed she could come to England to get some money and go back to build and improve her lifestyle, and instead she was in a worse position.

She rented one room - sharing with other people - and money was to the minimum.

Dad would have his friends round to play dominoes and have their rum or whiskey drinks, as they played just like in Dominica. The men have not lost playing dominoes tradition after dinner.

Dinner time was always a time we made to give jokes and stories - remembering the Anansi stories which were always so funny. We played calypso and soca music, and danced.

It’s lovely that we kept these traditions because it reminded me so much of my homeland and these memories are precious to me.

Howard Richards

My grandmother’s cooking was beyond my comprehension, beyond anyone’s comprehension.

She could twiss up hot chocolate, anything she touched her hands on, it was something out of the world!

  • Windrush - Howard Richards, Howard Richards
    Howard Richards

Lynda Louise Burrell

Whenever I smell Dettol, I remember Grandma. It transports me back in time to Grandma’s house - clean, and comforting, and a range of childhood memories tumble over each other.

Caribbean spiced bun and cheese, stewed chicken, Guinness punch, and ackee and salt fish, the smells that make up the quintessential Caribbean Home.

Something that Grandma instilled in me early was that you should always have food on the stove, as you never know when someone may stop by and a good Caribbean must always be able to offer visitors something to eat.

  • Windrush - Lynda Louise Burrell, Lynda Louise Burrell
    Lynda Louise Burrell

Well, my modern busy lifestyle doesn’t always allow me to follow this social etiquette, but again who would have thought in those days that one day society would have a system for cooked food to be delivered from a restaurant to your home with just a phone call, within minutes, and some of the suppliers can deliver drink too!

So, within minutes of the arrival of guests, and some great welcome and engaging conversation, you could be wining and dining - and as the Caribbean saying goes, “telling jokes!”

That’s what I miss most - not just Grandmas' good advice, advice for all seasons and reasons, but her laughter and the jokes we shared.

  • Windrush menu, The menu for the day
    The menu for the day

The Windrush Generation: Stories, memories, food and advice

2019 will be the first year that the nation celebrates Windrush day as an officially recognised anniversary so we took this opportunity to talk with Caribbean elders and hear their experiences.

Rachael Minott, Horniman’s Curator of Anthropology (Social Practice), wanted to use the World Gallery at the Horniman as a tool to better appeal to the people of Forest Hill, as 24.5% of Forest Hill population is of Caribbean descent.

Rachael, with the help of Shasti Lowton, created a series of events where multiple generations could gather and share food, stories and advice. These events would allow a discussion of the Windrush generation’s impact within families.

Who are the Windrush generation?

On 22 June 1948, the HMT Empire Windrush, arrived at Tilbury Docks, Essex, having sailed from Kinston, Jamaica.

Among its passengers were 492 people from the Caribbean who arrived, as all colonials were, British subjects of the Empire, with the same rights of movement and settlement as all who lived in Britain.

  • HMT Empire Windrush, HMT Empire Windrush, at sea between 1945 and 1954. , Royal Navy Official Photographer, Imperial War Museum via wikicommons
    HMT Empire Windrush, at sea between 1945 and 1954. , Royal Navy Official Photographer, Imperial War Museum via wikicommons

This date is now regarded as the symbolic starting point of a wave of Caribbean migration, with those who migrated between 1948 and 1971 referred to as the Windrush generation.

As a part of the post-war relief effort, these people helped to build the NHS, staffed the transport systems and worked in the industrial heart of the UK.

Music, food, language, fashion and art have all been transformed by Caribbean cultural influence, and fundamental human rights were championed by this community, among others, as they fought for equality.

This generation of migrants were pioneers, changing a cultural landscape and facing challenges of ignorance and prejudice. Their legacy can be felt across the world, but it is within the intimate connections of communities, within families and between friends, that their legacy touches our hearts.

What is the Windrush scandal?

On 18 June 2018, the government announced that a National Windrush Day will take place on 22 June every year to celebrate the contribution of the Windrush generation and their descendants.

However, 2018 also saw what has become known as the ‘Windrush Scandal’ where it emerged that for years this generation has faced deportation, withdrawal of care, and evictions due to failures by the Home Office to keep records of their legal status.

How did this happen?

The Immigration Act of 1971 firmly established a distinction among British subjects concerning rights to enter and stay in the UK, but it preserved certain immigration rights of Commonwealth citizens who had already settled.

A decade later, the British Nationality Act 1981 established what is now known as British citizenship. However, at this moment many Commonwealth citizens ceased to be British subjects, but did not become British citizens.

Changes to Immigration law in 2012, required people to have documentation to work, rent a property or access benefits, including healthcare. The Immigration Acts of 2014 and 2016 imposed compulsory immigration checks for access to these services.

Residents were expected to hold expensive biometric residence cards introduced in 2008 with formerly accepted documents deemed invalid proof of status.

This led to a number of people from the Windrush generation being wrongful classified as illegal immigrants. They were unable to use the Home Office database to prove their right to remain, as the government had destroyed all the landing cards in their care in 2009.

  • Windrush Scandal protest â from Parliament Square to the Home Office. London, Windrush Scandal protest â from Parliament Square to the Home Office. London, Steve Eason via Flickr CC BY 2.0
    Windrush Scandal protest â from Parliament Square to the Home Office. London, Steve Eason via Flickr CC BY 2.0

What was the result?

Nationwide protests, speeches in parliament and a swell of public support saw a change in Home Secretary, an apology from Theresa May and a commitment to support and compensate those who have been affected.

Since then, the Home Office has admitted that of the 164 people who were known to be wrongly detained or removed from the country, at least 19 died before officials were able to contact them to apologise; another 27 have not been traced.


Windrush Day must not be separated from the Windrush scandal that highlights the mass injustices still faced by this generation of Caribbean migrants.

The influence of this group on Britain and British identity has been staggering and we owe them so much.

This Windrush Day we will celebrate their contribution to our country, through sharing some of their thoughts and memories as well as pictures from these gatherings, so watch this space.

Hear It Live! Performance opportunities in the Music Gallery

We are looking for performers to take part in our Hear It Live! music performance series.

  • Neapolitan virginals by Onofrio Guarracino, 1668, Neapolitan virginals by Onofrio Guarracino, 1668
    Neapolitan virginals by Onofrio Guarracino, 1668

In 2016, the Horniman acquired three historic keyboard instruments from the celebrated Finchcocks Musical Museum, thanks to support from National Lottery players.

A four-year project conserving, repairing and documenting the instruments will culminate in their installation into the Horniman’s Music Gallery this summer. They will then feature in an expanded events programme.

Beginning in mid-July, the Hear it Live! performances will move from monthly to weekly events.

As in the past, the series will feature 30-minute recital/talks, but the day is changing from Tuesday to Thursday afternoons (from 3.30pm to 4pm) in the Horniman’s Music Gallery.

The four expertly maintained early keyboard instruments that will be heard are:

  • A Neapolitan virginals by Onofrio Guarracino, 1668
  • A square piano by Adam Beyer, London, 1777
  • An English chamber organ, possibly by Joseph Beloudy, London, c.1800
  • A double-manual harpsichord by Jacob Kirckman, London, 1772

The programming for these events will include a wide range of repertoire, both solo and ensemble. The events are free to the public but the musicians will receive an agreed fee. We are open to proposals made up of two or three consecutive weekly or monthly performances on a given theme.

Due to the rarity, age and sensitive condition of the instruments, all performers must have had previous experience playing historic keyboards and must be willing to attend in advance a brief introduction to the instruments with Mimi Waitzman, Deputy Keeper of Musical Instruments.

If you are interested in performing, please complete the application form below and return it to Beatrice Booker, Programming and Administrative Assistant (Musical Events) bbooker@horniman.ac.uk as soon as possible.

  • Neapolitan virginals by Onofrio Guarracino, 1668 , Close up of the Neapolitan virginals by Onofrio Guarracino, 1668
    Close up of the Neapolitan virginals by Onofrio Guarracino, 1668

  • Square piano by Adam Beyer, London, 1777, Square piano by Adam Beyer, London, 1777
    Square piano by Adam Beyer, London, 1777

  • Square piano by Adam Beyer, London, 1777, Square piano by Adam Beyer, London, 1777
    Square piano by Adam Beyer, London, 1777

  • English chamber organ, possibly by Joseph Beloudy, London, c.1800, English chamber organ, possibly by Joseph Beloudy, London, c.1800
    English chamber organ, possibly by Joseph Beloudy, London, c.1800

Sponsors

With a Little Help from the Friends

Who were the Friends of the Horniman? Archivist Carly Randall tells us more.

The Friends of the Horniman were an independent charity and membership organisation that launched in May 1988, and ran for 29 years until 2017. The group existed to build awareness of the Horniman and to support our work through volunteering, fundraising, and events to delight audiences.

The group played an important role since their foundation. By 2016, the Friends had raised in excess of £305,000 through activities like their annual art exhibition and garden fetes.

One of their most enduring gifts to the Horniman was their help in the successful campaign for the Horniman's survival, after the abolition of the Inner London Education Authority in 1988.

  • With a Little Help from the Friends, âHelp the Horniman Museumâ Flyer produced by the Friends in 1988.
    âHelp the Horniman Museumâ Flyer produced by the Friends in 1988.

The Horniman Museum was established in 1901 by Frederick Horniman. After being given to the people of London, it was funded by the Education Authority of the London County Council, until the Greater London Authority replaced the Council in 1965.

The Education Authority became the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) and continued even after the Greater London Authority disbanded in the late 1970s. But by 1988, the ILEA was facing a similar fate.

This put some of London’s most beloved museums, including the Horniman, in jeopardy.

  • Save the Horniman Article from the South London Press, Article from the South London Press, dated April 1988, drawing attention to the multi-generational campaign groups supporting the Horniman Museum.
    Article from the South London Press, dated April 1988, drawing attention to the multi-generational campaign groups supporting the Horniman Museum.

Local and national newspapers picked up the story and soon the rallying cry of ‘Save the Horniman’ was heard ringing through South London and as far away as California and Japan.

The Horniman’s then Director, David Boston, and his staff had been concerned for the future of the Museum and Gardens during this period of massive political upheaval.

One of our former Chairmen wondered whether we had reached the end of the road, a view only strengthened by an assurance from above that we would be looked after by Lewisham. Privately, I had been told that existing Borough funds could only keep us going for half a year. David Boston during a speech at the Friends’ 25th anniversary tea party in 2013.

Horniman staff, the local community and other supporters canvassed Members of Parliament to guarantee that the Horniman would remain open, funded and free to the public. It was then that the idea of a formal friends group began to take shape.

The Friends of the Horniman launched on 21 May 1988. They held their inaugural meeting on 2 July 1988, with their numbers already approaching 400 and over £2,500 raised by subscription, donation and fundraising events.

  • Margaret Spooner, founding member and Chair of the Friends, serving tea, Margaret Spooner, founding member and Chair of the Friends, serving tea during the launch of the Friends at the Horniman Museum in May 1988.
    Margaret Spooner, founding member and Chair of the Friends, serving tea during the launch of the Friends at the Horniman Museum in May 1988.

Less than two years later, on 5 April 1990, the Horniman launched itself as a charitable trust. The Friends had been key in helping to assemble a group of Trustees to lead the Museum and Gardens into a new era of independence.

…we had built the largest file in the history of the [ILEA] abolitions, as one fellow Director said, “Thanks to the Horniman Museum, we have come to believe in life after death.” David Boston

The Friends were active in finding new ways to improve the experience of visitors. Together, they funded new floor tiles in the reconstructed Conservatory, Victorian lampposts in the Gardens and improved toilet facilities for disabled visitors.

  • Ted Brown dressed up as one of the Three Musketeers , Ted Brown dressed up as one of the Three Musketeers during the Friendsâ Fete and Craft Fair at the Horniman on in July 1992. The goal of the fete was to raise money for a disabled access toilet in the Gardens.
    Ted Brown dressed up as one of the Three Musketeers during the Friendsâ Fete and Craft Fair at the Horniman on in July 1992. The goal of the fete was to raise money for a disabled access toilet in the Gardens.

In 2006, they had a rose named the ‘Tea Clipper’ in honour of Frederick Horniman on the centenary of his death. The Friends also contributed £30,000 to the World Gallery ahead of its opening.

During the Friend’s 2016 Annual General Meeting, members passed a vote to integrate the Friends into the Horniman’s Membership Scheme. This move allowed the Friends’ existing membership to continue supporting the Horniman for years to come.

Information about the Friends of the Horniman is in the Horniman’s Archives and is available to researchers by appointment. The collection includes files tracing the history of the group’s foundation in 1988, as well as copies of the Friends’ newsletters, committee minutes and tributes to its founding members.

  • The Friends selling plants , The Friends selling plants during the 1996 Arts Festival to raise funds for the Horniman
    The Friends selling plants during the 1996 Arts Festival to raise funds for the Horniman

#WomenInCulture - Our heroes

Cultural institutions across the world are gathering for Museum Week 2019 this May, with seven themes across seven days starting 13 May. This year’s overall theme is #WomenInCulture, so we asked our female staff and volunteers to nominate their super sheroes and let us know why they are an inspiration.

Ada Lovelace – Nominated by Beth Inkpen, Memberships Officer

  • Portait of Ada Lovelace , Portait of Ada Lovelace , Wikicommons
    Portait of Ada Lovelace , Wikicommons

Ada was born in 1815 in London to famed poet Lord Byron and Lady Anne Isabella Milbanke Byron. Her Father left just weeks after her birth and her mother, who did not want her to be a temperamental poet like her Father, insisted she learn mathematics and science from a young age. 

Around the age of 17, Ada met Charles Babbage, a mathematician and inventor. She was intrigued by Babbage’s plans for a device he called the Analytical Engine, which was never built, but contained all of the design elements of a modern computer. She was later asked to translate an article on the device, which she did, adding in a vast amount of her own thoughts and sketching out elaborate programmes. For this work, she is known as “the first computer programmer.”

Ada’s work attracted little attention throughout her life and until it became one of the critical documents to inspire Alan Turing’s work on the first modern computers in the 1940s. Since then, Ada has received many posthumous honours for her work. Her unrealised potential, and her passion and vision for technology have made her a powerful symbol for modern women in technology.

Agatha Christie – Nominated by Harriet Anscombe, Events Co-ordinator

  • Portrait of Agatha Christie, Agatha Christie
    Agatha Christie

Agatha Christie was a writer extraordinaire who taught herself to read age five. She is the world’s bestselling author of all time (alongside Shakespeare), and was an intrepid traveller and one of the first British women to learn to surf standing up.

As a child, long before true crime became on trend, I scoured the local library and charity shops to read every single yellow paged Agatha Christie story I could get hold of. Agatha Christie is particularly known for her fictional characters Hercule Poirot and Miss Marple (another female hero – who else do you know who can solve murders beyond the capability of all of Scotland Yard, and take down dangerous criminals all whilst knitting a fair isle jumper?).

I started off with the novels set in England – in smoky smoggy London, the leafy English countryside, glamorous country manor estates, and then moved on to Poirot’s travels abroad -  the thrilling adventures to unknown lands. Through Egypt along the Nile and via Istanbul on the Orient Express places I had never been. It was through these stories that she ignited my little feet’s first itches to travel the world.

Agatha has produced 66 detective novels, 14 short story collections and the world’s longest running play. Her books have sold over a billion copies in the English Language and over a billion in translation.

Zaha Hadid - Nominated by Cookie Rameder, Visitor Experience Manager

  • Portrait of Zaha Hadid, Zaha Hadid, Wikicommons
    Zaha Hadid, Wikicommons

Dame Zaha Mohammad Hadid DBE RA was the first female architect to receive the Pritzker Architecture Prize, in 2004. In 2015, she became the first and only woman to be awarded the Royal Gold Medal from the Royal Institute of British Architects.

Zaha was so powerful and visionary, she was described as 'a planet in her own orbit', by artist Valie Export for the courage of giving patriarchy a shock, and by poet Maya Angelou for understanding that, "people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel."

Zaha was made a dame by the Queen for her services to architecture.

Rosalind Franklin - Nominated by Fiona Kerlogue, Anthropologist

  • Portrait of Rosalind Franklin, Rosalind Franklin , Wikicommons
    Rosalind Franklin , Wikicommons

Rosalind Franklin was an English Chemist and X-ray crystallographer, known for her work in discovering the structure of DNA.  

For her contribution, she should have been awarded a Nobel Prize, however, her work was only recognised after her passing in 1958. The Nobel Prize for her part in the work was awarded later to Francis Crick, James Watson, and Maurice Wilkins in 1962.

Nanny of the Maroons – Nominated by Racheal Minott, Anthropology Curator (Social Practice)

  • Nanny of the Maroons sculpture , Nanny of the Marrons, Reading Museum,  Rachael Minott, 2013
    Nanny of the Marrons, Reading Museum,  Rachael Minott, 2013

  • Nanny of the Marrons sculpture , Nanny of the Maroons, Reading Museum
, Rachael Minott, 2013
    Nanny of the Maroons, Reading Museum , Rachael Minott, 2013

My personal hero would be Nanny of the Maroons, a National hero of Jamaica.

Although people are not sure if she was one person or a union of many Asante (female leaders with the title Nanny), she has become symbolic of resistance against repression and the undermining of the regime of enslavement in Jamaica.

Nanny of the Maroons is seen as a maternal and spiritual figure with supernatural powers (catching bullets in her buttocks and firing them back at colonial solders) but she is first and foremost, a spiritual (Obeah) figure, and a leader of the Moore Town Maroons.

In the western part of Jamaica, Nanny Town is named for her. She is believed to have been born in the 1600 and to have died around 1740, and was thought to have been born in what is today Ghana before being transported to Jamaica as a part of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. She escaped slaver and came to be one of the Windward Marron leaders of Jamaica.

While she is referenced in multiple colonial sources, referring to the Maroon Wars and the associated treaties with the British, there are no images of Nanny, and the record of her life are disputed.

However, as an artist, I took inspiration from Nanny and made a sculpture to represent her to try and capture the essence of the figure described in the multiple imaginings of her life. Strong and powerful, inspirational and nationally important to a Jamaican communal identity.

Caroline Norton – Nominated by Connie Churcher – Digital Manager

  • Watercolour of Caroline Norton , Watercolour sketch of Caroline Norton by Emma Fergusson 1860, National Portrait Gallery of Scotland, Stephencdickson
    Watercolour sketch of Caroline Norton by Emma Fergusson 1860, National Portrait Gallery of Scotland, Stephencdickson

My hero is Caroline Norton, the English social reformer and author, who had a personal struggle which we still legally feel the effects of today.

Caroline married a man who sounds awful. George Norton was an aggressive drunk, who abused Caroline and unsurprisingly she left him (which she was fortunate enough to be able to do).

Unfortunately, once a woman married her legal rights were subsumed by those of her husband. She was unable to support herself, despite being a popular author, as he was legally entitled to all her money, any furniture or property she owned (which she fought against by running up bills in her husband’s name). George abducted their sons and she had no right to see them, as they counted as George’s legal property. He also could block her ability to divorce him, as she was a legal non-entity.

After the death of her youngest following George’s neglect, she campaigned to change the law and subsequently Parliament passed the Custody of Infants Act 1839, the Matrimonial Causes Act 1857. The Married Women's Property Act in 1870 granted a legal separate identity for the first time in the UK.

Despite all this, Caroline had no interest in women’s suffrage (insert shocked face here), but I have to give her credit for winning rights which granted great freedoms further down the road.

 


Who are the women in culture you would like to share? Join in with the conversation on Twitter using the Hashtags #Horniman, #WomenInCulture and #MuseumWeek

Easter around the world

It’s Easter, filled with bunnies, egg-hunts and springtime treats, so we thought we would explore what Easter means to cultures around the world, through objects from the Horniman’s collections.

Polish Easter Eggs and decoration

In Poland, Easter is celebrated according to the Western Roman Catholic calendar. On the week before Easter, Palm Sunday (niedziela palmowa) takes place. Bunches of dried flowers and branches are brought to church representing palm leaves (said to have been scattered in front of Christ as he rode into Jerusalem) because palm trees are rare in Poland. The Holy week proceeds with spring-cleaning and families will decorate their homes in representations of Jesus’ tomb.

On the Saturday before Easter, the tradition of egg decorating, pisanki takes place, a tradition that’s more than a thousand years old. One technique to decorate the eggs is to apply wax, which would then be removed after dying. Another tradition is to make Easter baskets, these contain foods such as eggs, ham and cake. 

Easter Sunday consists of attending church for many to see the resurrection mass ceremony, before the meal and sharing of Easter chocolate. On the final festive day of Easter, known as Śmigus-Dyngus (Wet Monday), boys have traditionally thrown water over girls and hit them with willow branches. Girls traditionally returned the favour the following day.

  • Pisanki , Decorated egg, 'pisanki' , Horniman Museum and Gardens
    Decorated egg, 'pisanki' , Horniman Museum and Gardens

  • Dough lamb with flag, Dough lamb with flag, 2016.111, Horniman Museum and Gardens
    Dough lamb with flag, 2016.111, Horniman Museum and Gardens

  • Paper Easter chandelier, straw spider, Paper Easter chandelier, straw spider, 13.6.56/4, Horniman Museum and Gardens
    Paper Easter chandelier, straw spider, 13.6.56/4, Horniman Museum and Gardens

Paper Easter chandelier, 'straw spider', is a festival decoration made of straw and pieces of coloured paper. Decorations of this type were made during the Easter and Christmas periods and suspended under the ceiling beam. When spun by the wind, the decorations were a great attraction for children.

Easter in Russia

Did you know that Easter in Russia can fall in either April or May? This is because the dates are based on the Julian calendar, which differs from the Georgian calendar that most Western countries use.

All chores should be done the week before Easter, in the Holy Week. In Russia, Easter is called Pashka (Пасха) - one theory is that this derives from Greek for ‘I suffer’, signifying the transition Jesus made to from death to eternity.

As in Poland, Russia also has the tradition of decorating eggs, but this is done on ‘Clean Thursday’. Traditionally these are painted red using red onion skins and represent resurrection and new life. 

  • Lithograph of Easter customs, Lithograph of Easter customs, nn17390, Horniman Museum and Gardens
    Lithograph of Easter customs, nn17390, Horniman Museum and Gardens

The Easter witches of Sweden

In Sweden, children dress as påskgumma, the Easter witch or hag, and as with Halloween and trick-or-treat, the children knock on doors in exchange for sweets and drawings with Easter greetings on them.

In Swedish folklore, witches would travel to Blåkulla to dance with the devil on the Thursday before Easter, Maundy Thursday, and to prevent witches from starting journey people would hide broomsticks and set fires to scare them off.

  • Easter witch 31.10.60/3, Easter witch, 31.10.60/3, Horniman Museum and Gardens
    Easter witch, 31.10.60/3, Horniman Museum and Gardens

The Semana Santa and Pascua – Easter in Mexico

In Mexico, Easter is celebrated across two weeks: the Holy Week, Semana Santa, and Semana de Pascua, Easter week.

Processions and festivities take place on Semana Santa, and these activities change depending on the regions throughout Mexico.

It begins on Palm Sunday with the Blessing of the Palms, but really gets underway in earnest on Maundy Thursday, when there may be a re-enactment of the last supper, alongside services.

Church bells are usually silenced for the three days of Easter and people are called to church services by the use of a large wooden clapper also called a Matraca. Good Friday is marked in many towns and villages by the performance of a Passion Play, but it is Easter Saturday that most children look forward to.

On Easter Saturday large paper figures of Judas are stuffed with fireworks and paraded through the town, before exploding. The noise is added to by the spectators with Matracas. Easter Sunday is the highlight of the week when church attendance is high, and there are noisy celebrations in front of the church.

Semana de Pascua begins in the second week of Easter. This week has a light tone and celebrates the beginnings of Spring. Many Mexican families travel to the coast to pay tribute and enjoy the festivities.

  • Painted tin toy bird, matraca, Painted tin toy bird, known as a matraca, HC.1999.1386, Horniman Museum and Gardens
    Painted tin toy bird, known as a matraca, HC.1999.1386, Horniman Museum and Gardens

This painted tin toy bird, known as a matraca, or Easter rattle, painted black and pink with fake fur neck. Makes noise when rotated. Matracas are part of Easter Sunday celebrations in Mexico when paper figures of Judas are burnt, accompanied by fireworks and the noisy whirring of the matracas.

Australia and the Easter bilby

In Australia, Easter has the same traditions as many Western countries like hot cross buns and the extravagant roast dinner but did you know that the Easter bunny is represented by the Easter Bilby?

The Bilby (Macrotis lagotis), a small rodent-type animal, is used by many to raise awareness for the endangered animal.

Rabbits are seen as unlucky as they devastated the crops for farmers and are not indigenous to Australia.

  • Bilby , Bilby, Sadaka
    Bilby, Sadaka

Why not come and celebrate Easter at the Horniman? There are lots of events and activities happening throughout spring.

Join us in the Horniman fun for the Easter Fair on Saturday 20 and Sunday 21 April and identify the morning songs of birds in Dawn Chorus Walk on Saturday 4 May.

Horniman and Homecoming

The Horniman is excited to be involved in the Homecoming festival this year. The festival takes place from 19-21 April in Lagos and London.

Homecoming is a great celebration of Lagos art and culture. This resonates with our work at the Horniman, our commitment to music, visual art and performance, and how artists offer new perspectives on our collections.

The Horniman collections are from all over the world, while our exhibitions, displays and events bring artists from different backgrounds to show their work in our galleries and Gardens.

Homecoming gives us the chance to share some of the ideas we are working on with artists and colleagues in Lagos, and this is great timing because we have a number of projects in development.

Grace Ladoja MBE, Homecoming’s founder, says:

Homecoming's purpose is to ignite a celebration of cultural heritage and creative exchange, through the lens of music, fashion, sport and art.

In the Horniman, we're delighted to have the support of one of the UK's most culturally significant institutions for this year's edition. Their collection - one of the most expansive in the world - is steeped in Nigerian heritage and the Museum is already doing some wonderful work with artists and creatives in Nigeria, particularly in the run up to the country's 60th year of independence in 2020.

I'm confident this collaboration with the Horniman will help bring new audiences to the Horniman, while creating heightened visibility for Nigerian creatives under an international lens.

We’d love to hear more about the projects that are happening in Lagos, find ways to connect to them and share our ideas with you.

So what are we doing here in London?

Jide Odukoyo, Turn it Up

Jide Odukoya is a Nigerian photographer, whose first photographic pursuits were on the streets of Nigeria, including cities such as Lagos, Ogun, Ibadan, Ekiti, Benue, Oyo, Calabar, Enugu, Abuja and Port Harcourt. Now he majors in both long and short-term documentary photography projects focused on lifestyle, socio-economic issues, health and gender equality issues in Nigeria and beyond.

  • An image from Turn It Up by Jide Odukoya, An image from Turn It Up, Jide Odukoya
    An image from Turn It Up, Jide Odukoya

We were interested in Odukoya’s approach at the Horniman, and commissioned a series of photographs and film footage documenting the busy street markets on Lagos Island for the new World Gallery back in 2016.

Odukoya will be showing his recent series, Turn it Up, on the Balcony Gallery above the World Gallery. 'Turn it Up' is Lagosian vernacular for lavish fun. Odukoya shows Nigeria abuzz through public displays of cosmopolitan affluence and indulgence, celebrating Nigerian weddings and parties as some of the world's most opulent and outrageous ceremonies.

Through his work, Odukoya also wishes to evoke the paradox of such opulence, highlighting how momentary overindulgence is an important part of Nigerian cultural identity because the wealth that supports it is so fragile. See this display from June 2019.

Music in South London

The Horniman has one of the biggest collections of musical instruments in the world. The objects within come from all over the world, from 4,000 year old Egyptian hand clappers, to one of the first dance band drum kits in London and many instruments from Nigeria.

Our home in the heart of South London, puts us in the midst of a thriving and dynamic music scene, including Jazz, Grime and Afrobeat. Over the next two years we will be working with a range of musicians from the area, giving them a chance to work with our music collections and develop new work.

  • 1930s Drum Kit, 1930s Drum Kit
    1930s Drum Kit

This project, which is the first of its kind, will result in a major exhibition and music festival in autumn 2020.

Textiles and Independence

In October 2020, Nigeria will celebrate its 60th anniversary of Independence. We will be marking this at the Horniman with a new display in the World Gallery focusing on textiles, objects, images, sounds and memories from Nigeria in 1960.

We have a significant collection of mid-century indigo-dyed Adire cloth, printed wax cloths and woven Aso’Oke and Ekwete from the south and east, as well as thicker woven cloths from Kano in the North.

  • A close up of Nigerian textiles, A close up of Nigerian textiles - 1968.434
    A close up of Nigerian textiles - 1968.434

These textiles speak to a moment of artistic production and cultural reflection that surrounded Nigeria’s independence. They also reflect how this moment was one of migration and movement, with these textiles following their owners, as both Nigerian and British citizens resettled in the UK.

We will also be working with Nigerian/British artist Alafuro Sikoki-Coleman, weaving her own personal collection of objects and family memories from Nigeria in 1960, and creating new objects reflecting on the legacies of this moment in the present.

We hope to invite other people living in both Nigeria and Britain, to share their stories and photographs from and around the time of Nigerian independence, and to discuss how independence is remembered and reflected on today.


We’re interested in hearing what else is going on in London and Lagos, as part of this cultural exchange. What are your plans and how can we work together?

About the Art: James Morgan

Award-winning director and photographer James Morgan set out to capture the lives of the Bajau Laut, the world’s last true marine nomads. These Malay peoples have lived at sea for centuries, plying a tract of ocean between the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia.

We spoke to James about his documentation on the lives of Bajau Laut and his current exhibition at the Horniman, Sea Nomads.

  • Portrait of James Morgan, Portrait of James Morgan, James Morgan
    Portrait of James Morgan, James Morgan

What drew you to the Bajau Laut people?

I first heard about the Bajau in relation to the 2004 Tsunami. There was a story I heard about the Moken, another ocean-based people, having an intimate knowledge of the sea and being able to predict the Tsunami and escape to deeper water.

I’m not sure how much truth there actually is to the story, but it got me interested in marine nomads and cultures with intimate links to the ocean.

How long did you spend with them to capture this series?

  • _DSC5408, _DSC5408, For the children that are born in Torosiaje, it may be several years before they set foot on dry land. The stilt village has a junior school but older children commute to the mainland. Sulawesi, Indonesia. , James Morgan
    _DSC5408, For the children that are born in Torosiaje, it may be several years before they set foot on dry land. The stilt village has a junior school but older children commute to the mainland. Sulawesi, Indonesia. , James Morgan

These images were taken over the course of numerous trips over a five-year period. I’ve visited different communities, all around Sulawesi in Indonesia, staying usually for a couple of weeks at a time.

Did you have any particular shots in mind when planning this series, or things you needed to prepare?

I didn’t plan the images, although I had a sense of the kind of story I wanted to tell – although it changed as it developed. Mostly it moved away from a romanticised notion of life at sea to a more complex portrait of a community intricately involved in destroying the environment on which they depend.

There wasn’t a huge amount of preparation, but I did learn to freedive in order to create the underwater images without needing scuba apparatus. I also learnt to speak passable Indonesian in order to work directly without a translator.

Did you use any particular equipment or software when capturing the Sea Nomad images?

These images are just from a simple DSLR in an underwater housing. Actually, a surf housing as I find them lighter and quicker to use than dive housings.

What are the difficulties or joys of photography that you face in a series like this?

Shooting a mostly uncommissioned series like this is a real joy. It frees you up to follow your instincts and interests. The challenge, of course, is that the funding has to be patched together from various grants and sponsors, so there’s quite a bit of non-photography work involved!

What would you like people to think about when they see your work?

  • _DSC8458, _DSC8458, Ibu Ani looks on as her son, Ramdan, forages the reef for clams. Since Ani's husband died of the bends whilst compressor diving, she has relied on her son to support her during the months they spend at sea together., James Morgan
    _DSC8458, Ibu Ani looks on as her son, Ramdan, forages the reef for clams. Since Ani's husband died of the bends whilst compressor diving, she has relied on her son to support her during the months they spend at sea together., James Morgan

I think the main aim of the series is just to show an unusual way of life. Particularly one that’s very connected to the rhythms of the ocean. I’m very interested in the way we create our worlds, drawing from our experiences to build up a narrative of what life is and where its boundaries lie. I hope that images like these encourage people to reimagine the world they live in.     

What made you first want to become a photographer and filmmaker?

Originally, I just wanted to travel and see new things, and telling stories was a way for me to pay my way. But the interest in travel quickly dropped away and it became much more about trying to share the internal landscapes of the people I met.

How did you get started?

I got started by selling simple travel photographs of Iceland whilst I was studying at university there.

What would you advise someone wanting to start taking photos of their own or other communities?

To interrogate why you want to do it.  

What projects are you working on now or have coming up?

I’m currently working on a feature film about a near-future expedition in the Arctic. 


Sea Nomads is currently on display in the Balcony Gallery until 23 June.

 

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