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Bernie Krause introduces his Great Animal Orchestra

Bernie Krause's new installation of the Great Animal Orchestra opens at the Horniman this Sunday. Here the sound designer shares the history behind this stunning soundscape of natural habitats.

The new Horniman soundscape, The Great Animal Orchestra, is based on concepts within my book of the same title in which I describe how animals taught us to dance and sing. From my musical background and field observations of natural sound, my installations express how we discovered the origins of music which emanated from the world’s wild places.

The installation features the beautiful biophonies (the collective sound produced by all living organisms in a given location) from four different habitats: Borneo, Costa Rica, Sumatra, and Zimbabwe. Simultaneously, the installation projects the graphic images of these recordings called spectrograms.

The dramatic images, like orchestral musical scores, illustrate the organization of sound from which humans living amongst these animals mimicked, adopting the acoustic structure, melody, rhythm, harmony, texture and performance. One of my favourite moments is the magical call and response of two duetting gibbons in the recording from Camp Leakey, Borneo which really does sound like a musical duet.

The recordings at the Horniman hold special meaning for me and have been selected as prime examples of the many thousands I have recorded around the world. My fascination with biophonies began following my first field trip to Kenya in the 80s. When I returned home I created simple spectrograms from the recordings I’d made. Just as photographic images appear on photo paper, unmistakably clear patterns materialized showing the audio sequences I’d recorded. This was far from the chaotic random expression I and others perceived it to be; it became unmistakably clear that creatures vocalize in distinct kinship to one another, occupying their own bandwidth in order to hear their own species just as each instrument of the orchestra has a different range.

And so a lifetime’s work began.

The communal sound arrangement described above is still produced in the few remaining undisturbed places of the wild. Unfortunately many of my soundscape recordings are of habitats that no longer exist due to human intervention or natural disaster.  For example, the impact of population and mining has had a devastating effect on the Borneo habitat you can hear in the installation, and the habitat you hear from the Aceh province in Sumatra was destroyed in the 2004 Tsunami.

Great Animal Orchestra: Natural Soundscapes by Bernie Krause opens in the Horniman's Music Gallery on Sunday 27 July. Join us to celebrate the launch of this new exhibition at The Great Animal Orchestra Party.

Creating the Great Animal Orchestra

This week saw the transformation of the Horniman's Music Gallery performance space into the perfect setting for Bernie Krause's Great Animal Orchestra soundscapes. We popped in to take a look behind the scenes at how this special exhibition was created.

The performance space can be found at the end of the Gallery, and is usually closed to the public for use by schools and community groups.

The work began on Monday, as technicians from ArtAV arrived to install a huge frame into the room.

Careful measurements ensured the pieces brought in fit perfectly.

The next step was to fit black fabric to every side of the frame, as well as across the ceiling.

Leaving us with a dark space and a perfect projection surface for the visual elements of the exhibtion.

The only light in the room comes from the entry door and fire exit, meaning the rest of the work needed to be done by headtorch.

It wasn't long before ArtAV had the speakers playing Bernie Krause's fabulous natural soundscapes from around the world, and their accompanying spectogram displayed on one wall.

We could finally take a look at what the finished exhibition would be like.

It's a perfect place to stop, and maybe sit for a while, and listen to the sounds of the natural world.

Great Animal Orchestra opens to the public this Sunday and will be at the Horniman until 31 August. Join us for the launch party and experience the exhibiton alongside live music performances and family activities.

#MuseumMatch Highlights

For the knockout stages of this year's World Cup, we took to Twitter to share objects from the competing countries in #MuseumMatch.

While we were unfortunately unable to share any of our objects from England, our collections contain a wealth of objects from around the world, including all the countries which made it to the later stages of the tournament.

We picked some of the most interesting, intriguing and inspiring objects usually hidden in the stores to reveal to our Twitter followers.

Asking our followers to make a choice allowed us to get some idea of which ojects able to spark their interest, and what information they most wanted to learn.

Some things were expected, such as the popularity of animal-shaped objects.

But even some objects which we thought may be off-putting sparked some real interest and conversation with our followers.

The choices made led us to reveal more information about the objects in each pairing...

....as well as carry on conversation into the finer points of each object.

But things really got going in the later stages of the competition, when our semi-final and final Museum Matches seemed to eerly predict the outcome of the World Cup games.

First our object from Germany (seen above) trounced the choice from Brazil. The anatomical model chosen by many, leaving the Brazilian figure in the dust.

Then our Argentina/Netherlands matchup resulted in the first #MuseumMatch draw.

And finally, tweeting 2 days ahead of the World Cup Final #MuseumMatch experienced some early interest in Argentina.

But then.

More accurate than an octopus?


Thanks to everyone who participated in #MuseumMatch. You can look through all of our tweets on the subjects by following the #MuseumMatch hashtag on Twitter.

Giant Jellies in the Horniman

If you've visited our Aquarium in the last week, you'll probably have noticed some of the animals in our jellyfish tank are a little different to usual. Aquarium Curator Jamie Craggs introduces us to these giant jellies and what they're doing at the Horniman.

Last week the Horniman's Aquarium team travelled to the south coast to collect a number of large Barrel Jellyfish, Rhizostoma octopus.

These impressive jellyfish have bloomed in number this year, probably due to a unseasonably large plankton population.

Like most jellyfish species the barrel jellyfish are short-lived, growing from just a few millimetres across at the beginning of the year to individuals that weigh 20 kilos or more by the summer.

This species is also known as the 'dustbin-lid jellyfish' due to its size. Compared to our resident Moon Jellyfish, they are giants. To give a sense of scale, the smaller jellyfish in these pictures are around the size of an adult's hand.

The Barrel Jellyfish population explodes for a few short months and then dies out during September and October.

These individuals will be used to start our breeding programme for this species, enabling us to culture the species behind the scenes for many years.

Be sure to visit our Aquarium over the next few weeks to see these giant jellies in the tank alongside our resident smaller species.

On the Trolley

If you've visited our Natural History Gallery or Nature Base, you might have met one or two of our Engage volunteers. This team are a fantastic addition to the Museum, encouraging visitors to explore a little more and always ready to share their knowledge.

One of the key roles for our Engage volunteers is setting up and staffing the Engage trolley, which displays objects from the Horniman's handling collection in the Gallery.

Choosing objects for the handling trolley is always a difficult task so we asked our Engage volunteers to pick their favourites. We've had many fascinating and intriguing objects on the trolley for visitors to explore over the years and now and until the end of July, visitors will be able to handle and learn about our volunteers favourite objects.

Rhys chose the whale vertebrae.

The whale vertebrae is a huge, very tactile piece and really gives a sense of scale as to how big an animal a really whale is, especially when compared to the snake vertebrae on the handling trolley. The younger visitors love to guess which animal it is from, guesses have ranged from giraffe, elephant, hippopotamus and even a woodlouse! But everyone is impressed when they find out where it really comes from. I love that something so large and seemingly obvious can also have an air of mystery about it. It looks so ancient and no one is absolutely sure which species of whale it comes from, all we know is that it was once part of an ocean-dwelling giant!

Maher chose a sperm whale’s eardrum.

I chose the Sperm Whale’s eardrum as it is such a unique object. I often ask visitors to guess what it is and many come up with the most random of guesses. Once revealed that it is a Whale’s eardrum, it often leads to surprise and discussions about Whales, such their diets, where they live, how they can dive without coming up for air for over an hour and why sound is so important to them. I also explain to the younger visitors about echolocation, which many find fascinating. Also, along with the Whale’s vertebrae, it gives many an idea of the size of a whale.

Richard chose a snake skeleton.

The snake skeleton is a favourite of mine among the handling objects, as even quite young children have a good chance of identifying it. I particularly like using it in conjunction with the whale vertebra to show the difference in scale between the two species.

Andrea chose the hedgehog.

My favourite is the hedgehog. I enjoy demonstrating to the children how to handle it gently as this gives them an idea on how to be more safe. They also have the opportunity to touch an animal that is not very often seen during the day as hedgehogs tend to come at night. Like the other objects on the trolley, I love to ask open ended questions, explain to the public where it’s habitat is, what it’s food source is and who the predators are. I have immense pleasure when I see how much the children are in awe of the hedgehog and I also find it extremely cute.

Visit the engage trolley in the Natural History Gallery most days from 11am – 3pm to see these objects for yourselves. There will be new objects appearing on the trolley in time for the school summer holidays, so watch this space!

Design Inspiration from the Archives

You might have seen our posters and banners for this weekend's Horniman's Curious Tea Party and our Edwardian summer season of events.

When we sat down to think about how these would look, we had a little dilemma.

The Curious Tea Party is host to a day of newly commissioned art installations and dance performances, we didn't really have many photos we could use in advance.

Luckily, our graphic designer Stewart remembered seeing a wonderful Victorian poster - advertising the Museum and Gardens in 1897 - which provided excellent inspiration.

The Museum then was filled with lots of different, interesting and varied activities, just like our tea party will be this weekend. We used a similar style to display the information about our 2014 tea party, as well as the rest of our Edwardian Extravaganza, drawing on an object from the museum's own history.

See if you can spot some of the similarities between the 1897 poster and our new designs (note, it's not the fireworks).

A Tibetan gathering at the Horniman

Assistant Curator Tom updates us on a recent visit from a Tibetan group to the Horniman.

Two weeks ago Tibetans of mixed parentage came from all over the world to attend a unique gathering in London. One of the core ideas behind the gathering was put to Tibetans of mixed parentage in touch with each other and the Tibetan diaspora as a whole.

Dechen Pemba, who worked with us on our Tibet Food Workshop brought the group to the Horniman.

Alongside permanent displays of Tibetan material in the Music and Centenary Galleries we are currently showing a temporary exhibition of Tibetan Buddhist clay figures, so there was quite a lot to look at and discuss.

It was very interesting to browse our Tibetan exhibits with the group and it made me think about who we display our objects for. With the exception of Dechen, all the visitors were at most half Tibetan. Some had experience of the objects on display, whilst others had not. Some were very involved with Tibetan culture whilst others were not so much so. For all of the group however, the Tibetan objects on display had a particular significance, which was not something shared by other museum visitors.

The information which I could provide about the objects was mainly about the people who had collected them, and didn’t seem particularly relevant to the stories and experiences of the group.

In fact the most interesting thing about the visit was the backgrounds of the different members of the group and the similarities and differences of their experiences growing up mixed Tibetan in differing parts of the world. One member from Arizona told me about how back at home he had a Navajo friend who would turn up to Tibetan meetings and everyone would be none the wiser, mistaking him for Tibetan. He also drew comparisons between the use of silver and turquoise by Navajos and Tibetans. I was very pleased to tell him that the Horniman has played host to both the creation of a sand mandala by monks from Tserkamo Monastery in Ladakh and a sandpainting by Navajo medicine man Fred Stevens Klah.

Another member of the group - who couldn’t be present at the Horniman - was descended from Rinchen Lhamo, a Tibetan woman who had married diplomat Louis Magrath King, probably the first Tibetan-British marriage.

In 1925 they moved to England and Rinchen Lhamo wrote We Tibetans (Seeley Service, 1926), one of the first books written by a Tibetan about Tibetan culture to be published in English. Sadly, in 1929 Richen Lamo succumbed to tuberculosis and died at the age of 29. She is buried in Hildenborough churchyard, alongside her husband.

It was fantastic to welcome the group to the Horniman and gather their perspectives on our Tibetan collections. You can find out more about our work with London's Tibetan Community in the video below.

Football: the Global Game

Political geographer David Storey tells us how football reflects complex connections between people, place and identity.

As a political geographer, my interest in football conveniently dovetails with my academic interests in territory, place and identity.

Football can, with some validity, be regarded as the ultimate global game.

Colonial connections partly explain its early geographic diffusion while its growing contemporary popularity is bolstered through global media coverage and merchandising relating to international teams and European club sides.

Football's popularity is most likely linked to its flexibility; it requires little in the way of expensive technical equipment. Some open space, imagination and improvisation are all that is required.

Balls can be manufactured out of almost anything allowing young people to play on patches of ground virtually anywhere.

Football is one medium through which the global and the local intersect.

The children kicking an improvised ball may dream of stardom. Indeed, recent decades have seen African countries make some impact on the international stage with five African teams competing in the 2014 World Cup finals, and two (Algeria and Nigeria) making it through to the knock-out stage.

South Africa's hosting of the 2010 tournament certainly promoted interest in the sport on the continent but also sparked external interest, seen in the publication of an array of books on football in Africa.

To an extent, football puts places on the map.

Senegal's historic win over France, the former title holders, at the 2002 World Cup is a classic example of a country little known to many attaining David and Goliath style victory, a feat all the more resonant for the Senegalese as it came at the expense of their former colonial power.

Football in Africa remains bound into wider global processes, and players are increasingly part of a global sports labour market. The out-migration of young footballing talent to western Europe (particularly France and Spain) is a growing phenomenon.

On the one hand, such routes to migration are the result of historical, linguistic and colonial connections. But increasingly, transnational scouting systems, football agents, and the growth of academies in African countries (who act as conduits of talent to European clubs) encourage more diverse movements to places such as Russia and Ukraine.

While the rewards of a top-class career prove enticing for many, the reality for others may be radically different. Not everyone becomes Ivory Coast's Didier Drogba or Ghana's Michael Essien. There is serious concern over the fate of teenagers some of whom find themselves alone on the streets of European cities after failing to sufficiently impress an elite club.

The migration of talented footballers clearly has negative consequences for the development of football in Africa, as the best players seek better wages and greater fame outside of Africa.

Another dimension to this loss of talent is the number of players born in Africa, or of African parentage, who represent European countries in international competition.

One of the world's great players, Eusebio, who died recently, although forever associated with Portugal and SL Benfica was actually born and brought up in Mozambique.

A long history of migration means that many French teams of recent years have featured players of African origin. Most notably Zinedine Zidane and Karim Benzema - both born in France to Algerian parents.

Flexible and fluid

While the incorporation of these players reflects a more multi-cultural French society (a phenomenon decried by the French far right) some might wish they wore the colours of the familial homeland. The current multi-ethnic Belgian team features players from a range of immigrant backgrounds such as Marouane Fellaini, whose father was a Moroccan footballer, and Romelu Lukaku whose father played for Zaire (now DR Congo).

Alongside this, something of a reverse process is taking place, as countries take advantage of more flexible regulations. Algeria has effectively reclaimed many sons of its diaspora. The majority of players in its current World Cup squad were born in France to Algerian migrant parents.

This highlights the fluidity and multi-layered nature of national identity in football today. Belgium’s captain, Vincent Kompany (born in Brussels to a Congolese father and Belgian mother) recently declared himself to be both 100% Belgian and 100% Congolese.

This transnationalism has also given rise to the intriguing phenomenon of siblings playing for different countries. The Berlin-born Boateng half-brothers lined up against each other at the current and previous World Cups. Kevin Prince Boateng plays for Ghana (their father's birthplace) and Jerome represents Germany where their mother was born.

Football reflects many of the complex connections between people, place and identity.

The enjoyment experienced by Malian children kicking their makeshift 'ball' is mirrored in recent days as fans have taken to the streets of Marseille's old port area in displays of public jubilation for the Algerian team success in the World Cup. In that same place, a few years ago a billboard poster of Zidane (the son of Algerian immigrants) was prominently displayed, hailing the local sporting hero of France’s national team.

Goodbye Africa, see you in 2018

Johanna, who curates our Africa anthropology collections (and is a passionate football fan) gives us a glimpse at Africa, football and our collections.

Yesterday saw Africa's last hopes for World Cup glory with the defeat of both Nigeria and Algeria in two characteristically nail-biting games. A terrible shame in my view. Both games taken to the wire as exciting and creative football lost out to defensive play and predictable set-pieces.

But then again, I am biased. Goodbye Africa, see you in 2018.

Normally, I would not advocate causing intentional harm, but nothing made me happier than reading about Nana Kwaku Bonsam, the Ghanaian witch doctor responsible for Christiano Ronaldo’s knee injury.

In an interview on the Kumasi-based Angel FM, he described how he had spent months manufacturing a spirit called Kahwiri Kapam to work on Portugal's demise. It looks like it worked, though sadly not to Ghana's benefit. At least Ronaldo will be less pleased with himself now his team has been sent home, along with our own collection of not-quite-up-to-the-mark heroes.

Football is everywhere in Africa.

I spent the weeks leading up to the World Cup in Freetown, Sierra Leone, where taxis are adorned with hand-painted signs promoting the drivers' Premier League team, usually Chelsea and, for their sins, Manchester United.

Children play football as soon as they can walk and, when they are older, save up to purchase tickets to watch games in small, packed rooms, with tiny old TVs powered by generators.

I crammed in to watch Brazil comprehensively beat Panama in a friendly, with Chelsea's Willian's final goal met with raucous cheering.

Sierra Leone's own team, the Leone Stars, failed to qualify so many Freetowners chose to support England, sharing our frustration as the hopefuls faffed about on the pitch in their fetching white kits to no avail.

Our collection includes objects that highlight Africa's love of football:

This beautiful football from Uganda is made from locally-sourced materials. Its outer surface consists of carefully woven banana leaf fibers which are tough enough to withstand even Lionel Messi style shots at goal.

Another Ugandan football made from twisted banana leaves. This one is even tougher than the above. I wouldn’t want to take this one on the head!

African wax cloth designers make new patterns to commemorate important events. This example from comes from Mali and commemorates the 1990 World Cup in Italy.

Mali played their first World Cup qualifying match in 2000, but have as yet failed to get through. Fingers crossed for 2018!


Refugee Week at the Horniman

On Saturday 21st June, children from Action for Refugee Lewisham’s Rainbow Club performed music they had been practicing with Fairbeats! for museum visitors. The Horniman has worked with Fairbeats! many times in the past – they have real expertise at teaching music to children.

This year they had something special planned. One of the mothers from the group, Josephine Chukwujekusu, taught the children an Igbo song, called Nne, Nne or Mother, Mother.

This song tells of a girl who walks to the well to collect water carrying a heavy and expensive clay pot. As she leaves, her mother tells her to be careful and concentrate so she doesn’t break it.

On the way back the girl is distracted by her friends, she trips and the pot smashes. In the song, she asks what should she do: should she run away or go home and face her mother?

In preparation for the Refugee Week event, the group visited the Horniman to look at some clay pots in the Hands on Base and come up with inspiration to make this banner to hang behind them during the performance.

On the day, Josephine and the children performed the song to a large audience at the Horniman. The day also featured brilliant performances from the children on ukulele, fife and singing plus wonderful headdresses created especially for the occassion. Well done to all the children who took part!

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