Mādal, barrel drum. The shell of light brown wood carved with bands of concentric circles around the principal axis. The two heads are of unequal diameter and consist of an upper skin that is cut out to form a ring around the lower skin, which has a black paste tuning patch. Y-shaped hide lacing threaded through holes in the heads and tensioned by brass tuning rings. Plaited black and white pvc hoops. Leather carrying strap. Copper slag (sija khi; Newari) derived from smelting copper, is used by drum makers, kulus, in the manufacture of drums. The black circular tuning patch on Nepalese drums is made from a mixture of very finely powdered sija khi and blackgram, mas.
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